Samantha's Today in History

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June 25th

1876 U.S. Army Gen. George Custer and his force of 208 men were annihilated by Chief Sitting Bull's Sioux warriors at Little Big Horn in Montana.
1942 U.S. Army Gen. Dwight Eisenhower took command of the U.S. World War II forces in Europe.
1950 North Korean forces invaded South Korea.
1951 CBS aired the first color television broadcast. At the time, no color TV sets were owned by the public.
1962 The U.S. Supreme Court handed down a decision interpreted as barring prayer in public schools.
1967 With Mick Jagger, Keith Richard and others singing backup, the Beatles recorded All You Need Is Love before an international television audience estimated at 400 million people.
1973 White House attorney John Dean told a U.S. Senate committee that U.S. President Richard Nixon joined in a plot to cover up the Watergate break-in.
1991 Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, sparking civil war.
1993 Kim Campbell was sworn in as Canada's first woman prime minister.
1994 Japan's Prime Minister Tsutomu Hata resigned two months after taking office rather than face a no-confidence vote by parliament.
1996 A truck bomb killed 19 U.S. military personnel in Saudi Arabia. Several hundred more people were injured.
1997 About half of Mir's power supply was knocked out when an unmanned cargo ship collided with the Russian space station and put a hole in it.
1997 Montserrat's Soufriere Hills Volcano, after lying dormant for 400 years, erupted -- wiping out two-thirds of the Caribbean island and forcing most of the population to relocate.
1998 U.S. President Bill Clinton arrived in China for a much-debated visit.
2003 The Federal Reserve Board lowered the key federal funds rate, the overnight loan rate between banks, to 1.0 percent, lowest since 1958.
2004 The film Fahrenheit 9/11, Michael Moore's critical view of the invasion of Iraq, broke box office records for a documentary in its first few days.
2005 Religious conservative Tehran Mayor Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected president of Iran in a landslide.
2006 Warren Buffett announced plans to give away 85 percent of his shares in his company, about $37 billion, to charity. Most of that -- some $31 billion -- was earmarked for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
2007 A North Korea official said his country was ready to close its nuclear program.
2007 Suicide bombers killed more than 40 people in Iraq, including a tribal chief and 11 others in a five-star Baghdad hotel.
2008 The U.S. Supreme Court, by a 5-4 vote, ruled that the death penalty is unconstitutional for child rape.
2008 North Korean officials destroyed a cooling tower at the Yongbyon nuclear facility as part of the country's pledge to end its nuclear weapons program.
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June 26th

1900 Dr. Walter Reed and his medical team began a successful campaign to wipe out yellow fever in the Panama Canal Zone.
1917 The first troops of the American Expeditionary Force reached France in World War I.
1939 Film censors approved Gone With The Wind but fined Producer David O. Selznick $5,000 for objectionable language in Rhett Butler's famous closing line to Scarlett O'Hara: Frankly, my dear, I don't give a damn.
1945 The U.N. Charter was signed by representatives of 50 nations.
1945 The FCC began development of commercial television by allocating airwaves for 13 TV stations.
1959 U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower and Britain's Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the St. Lawrence Seaway in Canada.
1974 The bar code, allowing for the electronic scanning of prices, was used for the first time on a pack of gum at a supermarket in Troy, Ohio.
1976 The CN Tower, the world's tallest freestanding structure (1,815 feet, 5 inches), opened in Toronto.
1977 42 people died in a county jail fire in Columbia, Tenn.
1990 U.S. President George H.W. Bush discarded his no new taxes campaign pledge, saying it is clear to me taxes are needed as part of deficit-reduction package.
1991 120 people drowned after an Indonesian trawler and an unidentified ship collided in the Straits of Malacca.
1992 U.S. Navy Secretary H. Lawrence Garrett resigned, accepting responsibility for the Tailhook incident involving the harassment of Navy women by naval aviators.
1992 Los Angeles Police Chief Daryl Gates, the target of public wrath for the Rodney King beating, resigned.
1993 In response to an Iraqi plot to assassinate former U.S. President George H.W. Bush during a visit to Kuwait, two U.S. ships in the Persian Gulf fired missiles at Iraq's intelligence complex. The main headquarters building was badly damaged.
1995 An attempted assassination of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak failed during his visit to Ethiopia.
2000 Two rival groups of scientists announced they had deciphered the genetic code, the human genome.
2002 The U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that the Pledge of Allegiance recited in schools was unconstitutional because of the phrase under God. The ruling was stayed pending appeal.
2003 The U.S. Supreme Court gave a major boost to gay rights advocates by striking down a Texas law forbidding sexual activity between same-sex partners.
2005 Six months after the Indian Ocean tsunami, the death toll stood at 178,000 in 11 countries with another 50,000 people missing and presumed dead.
2006 Israel put on a military show of strength in the Gaza Strip following a bloody Palestinian militant raid on a military post and kidnapping of a soldier.
2007 German prosecutors sought to try 13 U.S. intelligence agents who allegedly kidnapped a German citizen in 2003. It's the second case in Europe centered on the controversial U.S. extraordinary rendition practice in which terror suspects arrested in one country can be transported to another with fewer prisoner rights for questioning. A trial of 26 CIA agents in Italy was reported on hold.
2008 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, 5 to 4, that the Constitution protects an individual's right to carry a gun for private use but insisted that the ruling did nothing to alter the ban on gun ownership by felons or the mentally ill or carrying a gun into such sensitive areas as schools or government buildings.
2008 North Korea officials handed over to China a list of its nuclear facilities. In exchange, the United States removed North Korea from its list of countries that sponsor terrorism and lifted some sanctions.
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June 27th

1801 British forces captured Cairo and the French began withdrawing from Egypt in one of the Napoleonic Wars.
1829 English scientist James Smithson leaves a will that eventually funds the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, in a country he never visited.
1844 Mormon founder Joseph Smith was slain by a mob at a jail in Carthage, Ill.
1847 The first telegraph wire links were established between New York City and Boston.
1859 Louisville, Ky., schoolteacher Mildred Hill wrote a tune for her students and called it Good Morning To You. Her sister, Patty, wrote the lyrics and later added a verse that began Happy Birthday To You.
1893 The Panic of 1893 began as the value of the U.S. silver dollar fell to less than 60 cents in gold.
1950 U.S. President Harry Truman ordered U.S. naval and air forces to help repel the North Korean invasion of South Korea.
1979 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled private employers could give special preferences to blacks to eliminate manifest racial imbalance in traditionally white-only jobs.
1991 Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall announced he was retiring from the U.S. Supreme Court. He was the first African-American to sit on the high court.
1991 South Africa announced it would sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and agree not to develop nuclear weapons.
1992 U.S. President George H.W. Bush's only daughter married the former top aide to the House Democratic leader in a private ceremony at Camp David, Md.
1993 U.N.-sponsored talks between exiled Haitian President Aristide and the military leaders who ousted him opened in New York.
1995 The space shuttle Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on a historic mission to dock with the Russian space station Mir. The flight was also the 100th U.S.-piloted space mission.
2001 Screen legend Jack Lemmon died at the age of 76.
2002 The U.S. Supreme Court, acting in a Cleveland case, upheld that city's school vouchers program, in which public money goes to help parents pay tuition to non-public schools.
2003 The Federal Trade Commission opened a long-awaited nationwide registry for those who want to block unwanted telemarketing calls.
2004 Two car bombs exploded near a mosque in the southern Iraqi city of Hilla, killing at least 23 Iraqi civilians and wounding 58 others.
2005 U.S. crude oil prices closed at a record $60 a barrel.
2005 Dennis Rader, the so-called BTK killer (bind, torture, kill), pleaded guilty to 10 slayings in the Wichita, Kan., area.
2007 Tony Blair officially stepped down as British prime minister when he submitted his resignation to Queen Elizabeth II and was succeeded by Gordon Brown. Blair moved into a new role as special international envoy for the Middle East.
2007 Gasoline rationing was introduced in Iran despite its status as the second-highest OPEC crude oil producer. Iran had minimal refining capacity and reportedly must import about 40 percent of its refined gasoline.
2008 Despite sharp, widespread opposition, the violent Zimbabwean presidential runoff election went as scheduled with incumbent Robert Mugabe re-elected as the only candidate left in the race. Challenger Morgan Tsvangirai had withdrawn citing escalating violence against his supporters.
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June 28th

1778 The Continental Army under command of Gen. George Washington defeated the British at Monmouth, N.J.
1914 Archduke Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia, an act credited with igniting World War I.
1919 World War I officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
1969 The clientele of a New York City gay bar, the Stonewall Inn, rioted after the club was raided by police. The event is considered the start of the gay liberation movement.
1971 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the use of public funds for parochial schools was unconstitutional.
1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon announced that no more draftees would be sent to Vietnam unless they volunteered for service in the Asian nation.
1984 Israel and Syria exchanged prisoners for the first time in 10 years; 291 Syrian soldiers were traded for three Israelis.
1991 The Yugoslav army was deployed to Slovenia to take control of airports and border posts and to prevent the republic's declared independence.
1993 In its last report before disbanding, the White House National Committee on AIDS blasted the Bush administration's response to AIDS and challenged the Clinton administration to do more.
1997 Mike Tyson bit the ears of heavyweight boxing champion Evander Holyfield, tearing off a piece of one ear, during a title fight in Las Vegas.
2000 Elian Gonzalez and his father returned to Cuba, hours after the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal from the Cuban refugee's Miami relatives who sought to keep the boy in the United States.
2000 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts of America had a constitutional right to exclude gay members.
2003 People eager to block telemarketing calls overwhelmed a government Web site that began accepting phone numbers at the national do-not-call registry. The Federal Trade Commission said 735,000 numbers were registered the first day.
2004 The U.S.-led coalition formally transferred political power in Iraq to an interim government that would run the country until elections were held.
2005 At least 30 people were killed in torrential rains that pounded El Salvador causing flooding and damage to homes.
2007 The revived U.S. immigration bill failed in the U.S. Senate when supporters were unable to muster enough ayes to end debate on the matter and bring it up for a vote.
2008 The National Rifle Association, after a legal victory in the U.S. Supreme Court, sued the city of Chicago in an effort to repeal its handgun ban. The high court opened the door to similar challenges by overturning the District of Columbia's ban and ruling it legal in most cases to carry guns for self defense.
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June 29th

1853 The U.S. Senate ratified the $10 million Gadsden Purchase from Mexico, adding more than 29,000 square miles to the territories of Arizona and New Mexico and completing the modern geographical boundaries of the contiguous 48 states.
1933 Fatty Arbuckle, the silent film comedian and one of Hollywood's most beloved personalities until a manslaughter charge ruined his career, died while preparing a comeback. He was 46.
1941 Isabella Peron took office as president of Argentina, succeeding her husband.
1946 Two years before Israel became a nation, British authorities arrested more than 2,700 Jewish Zionists in an effort to stop terrorism in Palestine.
1970 The last U.S. troops were withdrawn from Cambodia into South Vietnam.
1972 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment, as then administered by individual states, was unconstitutional.
1991 The European Community announced $1.4 billion in aid for the Soviet Union.
1992 The U.S. Supreme Court left intact the important aspects of the 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing abortion but upheld most of Pennsylvania's new restrictions on a woman's right to abortion.
1992 Doctors in Pittsburgh reported the world's first transplant of a baboon liver into a human patient. The recipient, a 35-year-old man, survived for three months.
1994 The Japanese Diet elected Tomiichi Murayama prime minister.
1994 In a taped interview aired on British TV, Prince Charles admitted he had been unfaithful to his estranged wife, Princess Diana.
1995 The U.S. shuttle Atlantis docked with the Russian space station Mir.
1999 A Turkish court convicted Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan of treason and sentenced him to death.
2003 Hollywood legend Katherine Hepburn died at the age of 96 after a six-decade career in which she won a record four Oscars for best actress.
2005 The Bush administration gave the new director of national intelligence additional powers, including authority over operations by the FBI and other agencies.
2006 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled U.S. President George Bush didn't have authority, under military law or the Geneva Conventions, to set up military tribunals for terror suspects at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
2007 The U.S. Supreme Court reversed course and agreed to hear the appeals of detainees held at the Guantanamo Bay military prison on Cuba.
2007 London police found an explosive device in a car in a parking garage a few hours after a car bomb left outside a night club was disarmed. The discoveries came almost two years after suicide bombers killed 52 people and injured hundreds in London's public transportation system.
2008 Incumbent President Robert Mugabe declared victory in Zimbabwe's runoff election, a contest denounced by African observers as not credible. Mugabe was the only candidate left in the race after his opponent pulled out for fear of further violence.
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June 30th

1859 Frenchman Jean Francois Gravelet, known professionally as the Great Blondin, became the first daredevil to walk across Niagara Falls on a tight rope.
1870 Ada Kepley became the first woman to graduate from an accredited law school in the United States, Union College of Law in Chicago.
1908 A spectacular explosion occurred over central Siberia, probably caused by a meteorite. The fireball reportedly could be seen hundreds of miles away.
1923 Jazz pioneer Sidney Bechet made his first recording. It included Wild Cat Blues and Kansas City Blues.
1934 German leader Adolf Hitler ordered a bloody purge of his own political party, assassinating hundreds of Nazis whom he feared might become political enemies.
1936 Margaret Mitchell's Civil War novel Gone With the Wind was published.
1950 U.S. troops were moved from Japan to help defend South Korea against the invading North Koreans.
1971 Three Soviet Cosmonauts, crewmembers of the world's first space station, were killed when their spacecraft depressurized during re-entry.
1982 The extended deadline for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment expired, three states short of the 38 needed for passage.
1986 Hugh Hefner, calling his Playboy Bunny a symbol of the past, closed Playboy Clubs in Chicago, New York and Los Angeles.
1992 Fidel Ramos was inaugurated as the eighth Philippine president in the first peaceful transfer of power in a generation.
1998 A casualty of the Vietnam War buried at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington, Va., was identified as Air Force Lt. Michael Blassie of St. Louis.
1999 Clinton crony Webster Hubbell, a former associate U.S. attorney general, pleaded guilty to reduced charges in the Whitewater land deal scandal.
2000 The Clinton administration said Iraq restarted its missile program and flight-tested a short-range ballistic missile.
2000 The Presbyterian Church ordered its ministers not to conduct same-sex unions.
2002 Published reports said fugitive terrorist leader Osama bin Laden wrote his operations chief in late December saying he survived the U.S. assault on his cave complex in Afghanistan.
2002 Israel announced it had killed a top Hamas bomb-maker, responsible for the deaths of more than 100 Israelis in suicide attacks and had begun work on an electronic fence designed to block off three sides of Jerusalem from the West Bank.
2003 After agreeing on a cease-fire with the Palestinians, Israel pulled out of most of the Gaza Strip, ending for the time being a blockade on the main highway that began in 2000.
2004 The Federal Reserve, for the first time in four years, raised its benchmark interest rate from a record low 1 percent to 1.25 percent for overnight loans.
2004 The Cassini spacecraft, in space on a U.S.-European mission, became the first device to orbit the planet Saturn.
2005 The Federal Reserve raised key interest rates a ninth consecutive, noting rising energy prices.
2005 Israel declared the Gaza Strip a closed military zone. All Israelis, except for residents, service providers and reporters, were barred from entering.
2006 A joint U.S.-Canadian investigation grounded a group accused of using helicopters and planes to ferry drugs from British Columbia across the border. Agents reported arresting 46 people and seizing 4 tons of marijuana, 800 pounds of cocaine, aircraft and $1.5 million in cash.
2007 A car blew up at Glasgow airport in Scotland after two British bomb threats the day before prompted authorities to raise the security level to critical.
2008 Stocks reported a staggering loss of $2.1 trillion in value for the first half of the year -- $1.4 trillion in June alone. The Dow Jones industrial average closed on June 30 at 11,350.01, down 14.4 percent since the start of the year.
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July 1st

1847 The first U.S. postage stamps were issued.
1859 The first intercollegiate baseball game was played in Pittsfield, Mass. Amherst beat Williams, 66-32.
1867 Canada was granted its independence by Great Britain. It consisted at the time of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and future provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
1874 The Philadelphia Zoological Society, the first U.S. zoo, opened to the public.
1893 U.S. President Grover Cleveland underwent secret surgery to remove a cancerous growth in his mouth. The operation didn't become public knowledge until a newspaper article about it was published on Sept. 22, 1917 -- nine years after Cleveland's death.
1898 Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough Riders led the charge up Cuba's heavily fortified San Juan Hill in a key Spanish-American War battle.
1916 In the worst single day of casualties in British military history, 20,000 soldiers were killed, 40,000 wounded in a massive offense against German forces in France's Somme River region during World War I.
1932 The Democrats nominated Franklin Delano Roosevelt for president. FDR eventually was elected to four consecutive terms.
1941 NBC broadcast the first FCC-sanctioned TV commercial, a spot for Bulova watches shown during a Dodgers-Phillies game. It cost Bulova $9.
1946 The United States conducted its first post-war test of the atomic bomb, at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.
1979 Sony introduced the Walkman, known as the Soundabout, in U.S. stores. It sold for about $200.
1990 The West and East German economies were united as the deutsche mark replaced the mark as currency in East Germany.
1991 The Warsaw Pact ceased to exist.
1993 U.S. President Bill Clinton unveiled a plan for logging in federal old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest that would also protect the northern spotted owl.
1994 The U.N. Security Council authorized a commission to investigate acts of genocide in Rwanda.
1996 A dozen members of a paramilitary organization were arrested in Arizona and charged with plotting to bomb government buildings.
1997 Hong Kong was returned to China after 99 years as a British territory.
2002 Cannon fire and bombs from a U.S. Air Force AC-130 struck a town in southern Afghanistan, killing about 50 people, including members of a wedding party. U.S. officials said the plane had been fired on.
2002 In a rare high-altitude accident, a passenger airliner collided with a cargo plane over Germany, killing all 71 aboard.
2004 Former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, looking tired and shaky, appeared before a special tribunal in Baghdad for the first time to face charges of crimes against humanity and genocide.
2004 Dynamic Hollywood legend Marlon Brando died of lung failure. He was 80.
2005 Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, the first woman on the U.S. Supreme Court, announced she planned to retire.
2006 A car bomb killed 62 people and injured another 114 at a popular market in a predominantly Shiite neighborhood in northwest Baghdad.
2006 Israel launched an air strike that hit the Gaza office of Palestinian Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh and set the building on fire. Haniyeh wasn't in the building at the time.
2007 British authorities arrested six doctors in the botched bombings in London and at the Glasgow airport in Scotland. The doctors, who worked at Britain's National Health Service, were reported to be from the Middle East or India.
2007 Moshe Katsav stepped down as president of Israel, a post he had held since 2000. Rape charges against him were dropped in exchange for a guilty plea to sexual harassment.
2008 The Catholic Archdiocese of Denver agreed to pay more than $5.5 million to settle lawsuits over alleged sexual abuse by priests.
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July 2nd

1788 It was announced in the U.S. Congress that the new Constitution had been ratified by the required nine states, the ninth being New Hampshire.
1839 African slaves being shipped to Cuba revolted and seized the ship Amistad, leading to an eventual end of the African slave market.
1881 U.S. President James Garfield was shot by Charles Guiteau, a mentally disturbed office-seeker. Garfield died Sept. 19 and was succeeded by Vice President Chester Arthur.
1900 The world's first rigid airship was demonstrated by Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin in Germany.
1917 As many as 75 blacks were killed in rioting in St. Louis.
1934 6-year-old Shirley Temple signed a contract with Fox Film Corp. and went on to become one of the biggest movie stars of the day.
1937 U.S. aviator Amelia Earhart and navigator Frederick Noonan were reported lost over the Pacific Ocean. They were never found.
1964 U.S. President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
1974 U.S President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev agreed during a meeting in Yalta on limitations on underground nuclear testing.
1986 The U.S. Supreme Court endorsed numerical hiring goals for minorities, rejecting the Reagan administration view that affirmative action be limited to proven victims of race discrimination.
1990 A stampede in a pedestrian tunnel at the Muslim holy city of Mecca during the annual Hajj killed 1,426 pilgrims.
1993 Sheik Omar Abdel Rahmen, whose followers were linked to two bombing plots, was taken into U.S. federal custody.
1993 South African President F.W de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela announced that South Africa's first election open to all races would be April 27, 1994.
1994 The Colombian soccer player who inadvertently scored a goal for the United States, contributing to his team's loss in World Cup competition, was shot to death in Medellin, Colombia.
2000 Vicente Fox was elected president of Mexico.
2002 After five unsuccessful attempts, American Steve Fossett completed a round-the-world solo flight in a balloon, reaching Queensland in the Australian outback to finish a 13-day, 19,428-mile trip that began in Western Australia.
2004 Medical reports said post-traumatic stress disorder was appearing in 1-in-6 U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq.
2005 Egypt's new ambassador to Iraq was abducted in Baghdad, reportedly by the al-Qaida. He was later slain.
2006 Israeli bombs destroyed the Gaza City offices of the Palestinian Authority prime minister, kicking off a month of violent attacks against Palestinian militants largely in response to the kidnapping of an Israeli soldier.
2007 U.S. President George Bush commuted the 30-month prison sentence of Lewis Scooter Libby, former chief of staff for Vice President Dick Cheney. Libby was convicted of obstructing a federal investigation into who leaked the identity of an undercover CIA agent.
2007 Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., claimed the fundraising lead in the Democratic presidential primary battle with $32.5 million. His top opponent, Sen. Hillary Clinton, D-N.Y., reported $27 million. In the GOP race, Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., had to cut back his campaign because of a shortage of funds.
2008 Economists said the decline in U.S. automobile sales was a cause for alarm in the American economic picture and not expected to improve in the short term. Figures showed sales in June dropped 28 percent at Ford, 21 percent at Toyota and 18 percent at General Motors.
2008 U.S. President George Bush said that June coalition troop deaths in Afghanistan surpassed casualty levels in Iraq for the second straight month. Forty-six foreign troops were reported killed in Afghanistan and 31 in Iraq in June while the numbers were 23 and 21 in May.
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